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读这些书就行了,不要去考MBA

Sam Parr, The Hustle 2017年09月16日

大家应该读一读下列11本书,而不是去考什么商业学位。

我不怪那些想拿MBA学位的人。这不是他们的错,他们被骗了,所以才相信这是他们职业发展的最佳途径。

但正如大家所知(高盛也同意这一点),在一门毫无用处的课程上花费逾10万美元,还让自己在随后10年里一直背负债务,这对95%的人来说都是错误的一步。

那么,我们应该怎样学习那些向前迈进所需的东西呢?

在书里学。嗯,我知道这个答案很模糊。书海浩瀚,每个课题都有几千本书。阅读商业书籍可能要花一辈子的时间。而这就是我要解决的问题。

寻找首选资源

《财富》杂志记者曾问爱彼迎首席执行官布莱恩·切斯基,经营这家3000人的公司前他对管理有哪些认识。切斯基回答说:“那差不多就是自问,我知道什么呢?”

但切斯基还是弄明白了这一点。他是怎么做到的呢?

切斯基发现,不要妄想把某个主题的相关内容都学到手,更有效率的做法是研究并发现这个领域中的最佳资源。然后径直去找那个人。他说:“如果选对了资源,就可以快速向前。”

鉴于修商业学位是毫无意义地浪费时间,在这个领域进行自学的最佳途径就是读书。

大家应该读一读下列11本书,而不是去考什么商业学位。

《工商巨子:约翰·D·洛克菲勒传》

所有对商业感兴趣者的必读之作

I don’t blame people for wanting to get an MBA. It’s not their fault they’ve been duped into believing it’s the best way to further their career in business.

But, as we all know, (and Goldman Sachs agrees) spending over $100,000 for a useless education—and putting yourself in debt for the next 10 years—is the wrong move for 95% of people.

So how are you supposed to learn what you need to get ahead?

Books. Now, I know that’s an ambiguous answer. There are millions of books. Thousands on every topic. You could spend your entire life reading books on business. I’m here to solve that problem.

Go to the first source

When a reporter from Fortune asked Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky what he knew about management prior to running his 3,000 person organization, Chesky responded with, “It’s kind of like, what did I know?”

But somehow Chesky figured it out. How did he do it?

Rather than trying to learn everything about a particular topic, Chesky found it was more efficient to research and identify the single best source in that field. He then went straight to that person. “If you pick the right source, you can fast-forward,” he said.

And since a business degree is a pointless waste of time, the best way to educate yourself on business is by reading books.

Here’s a list of the 11 books you should read in lieu of getting a business degree.

Titan: The life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. by Ron Chernow: A must read for anyone interested in business

图片来源:Amazon.com

我在一本书上看到,每个人都是和自己相处时间最长的那五个人的“平均值”。如果这是真的(我相信是真的),那么读自传就像是每天晚上和那些伟大人物相处几个小时。

自传会以一种奇怪的方式改变你的行为。每晚花一、两个小时向偶像学习后,你会发现自己开始采用他们的习惯。我知道这很怪,但确实是这样。一本好的自传会推动你的事业快速进步,因为你从目标对象的错误中汲取了经验,而不是自己去犯错,从而节省了时间。一本伟大的自传能为你省下几十年的时间。

同时,看到已经有人实现过自己想完成的目标,不管这个目标是什么,你的职业生涯都会变得轻松得多。

所有对商业感兴趣的人都应该读一读约翰·D·洛克菲勒的自传。除了成为历史上最富有的人,他还是一位忠诚的生活伴侣,一位自律的劳动者,他自信的不可思议,却又为人谦恭。他白手起家,建立了标准石油公司,这是当时世界上最大的企业之一。洛克菲勒让垄断在美国成为违法行为。

但和其他商业巨头不同,洛克菲勒以友善和慷慨著称(他出资设立了芝加哥大学,并为斯贝尔曼学院捐款)。

《时代》杂志和《纽约时报》把本书列为史上最伟大的自传之一。在我看来,它是有史以来最出色的著述之一。

我觉得对任何种类的成功而言,没有哪种品质像毅力这般重要。它几乎能战胜一切,甚至是大自然。——约翰·D·洛克菲勒,《工商巨子》

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《权力的48条法则》

怎样畅游在企业的世界中

I once read that you’re the average of the five people you spend most of your time with. If that’s true (which I believe it is), then reading biographies is like spending a few hours a night with the great ones.

Biographies have a strange way of changing your behavior. When you spend an hour or two a night learning from your heroes you notice that you start to adopt their habits. It’s strange, I know, but it’s true. A good biography will fast forward your career because of the time you’ll save learning from the subject’s mistakes rather than making them on your own. A great biography will save you decades.

Plus, your business career will be significantly easier when you know that whatever you want to accomplish has already been done.

Everyone interested in business should read John D. Rockefeller’s biography. Aside from being the richest person in history, Rockefeller was a loyal family man, a disciplined worker, and incredibly confident but humble. He built Standard Oil, one of the largest companies the world had ever seen, from scratch. Rockefeller is the reason monopolies in America are illegal.

But unlike other business magnates, Rockefeller was famously kind and generous (he funded the University of Chicago and donated to Spelman College).

Time Magazine and The New York Times list Titan as one of the greatest biographies ever written, and I think it’s one of the greatest books of all time.

I do not think that there is any other quality so essential to success of any kind as the quality of perseverance. It overcomes almost everything, even nature.—John D. Rockefeller, "Titan"

The 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene: How to navigate the corporate world

图片来源:Amazon.com

商业和战争颇为相似,但原因可能跟大家想的不一样。和战争一样,商业的取胜之道往往在于人心。一个伟大的领导者能控制敌人、自己团队以及他本人的态度;如果措施得当,就可以不战而胜。

《权力的48条法则》基本上就是对《孙子兵法》(另一本伟大著述)的改编。二者的主要区别在于《权力的48条法则》的可读性及其对历史故事的引用。我觉得《孙子兵法》很晦涩,《权力的48条法则》读起来则很顺畅。格林用了400多页的篇幅来解释如何攀爬社会阶梯并通过历史典故来证明他的观点。

在人的一生中,遵循摩西、耶稣或者佛陀的教诲会过得更好,而且会赢得长期幸福。但可悲的现实在于,许多人的生活都遵循另一套完全不同的规则,而且虽然这些人中的大多数最终都自我毁灭了,但在这个过程中,他们会对我们的个人生活和职业生涯造成极为严重的危害。

《权力的48条法则》是了解这些人怎样思考的优秀启蒙读物。——亚马逊书评

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《影响力:说服术的心理学》

让别人买下你兜售的东西

Business and war are quite similar. But not for the reasons you might think. Business, like war, is often won in people’s minds. A great leader can control the attitudes of his enemies, his team, and himself, and if done correctly, can win a war before it ever starts.

The 48 Laws of Power is basically an adaptation of Sun Tzu’s the Art of War (another great book). The major difference is in The 48 Laws of Power’s readability and it’s use of historical stories. I find the Art of War tough to read, whereas The 48 Laws of Power is a page turner. Greene spends over 400 pages explaining how to climb the social ladder and uses historical examples to make his case.

In one’s life, you’re better off following the teachings of Moses, Jesus, or Buddha to gain long-term happiness. But the sad fact is, many people live by a very different set of rules, and while most of these folks eventually self-destruct, they can inflict severe damage on our personal and professional lives in the process.

48 Rules of Power is a good primer for learning how these people think.—Amazon review of "The 48 Laws of Power"

Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert B. Cialdini: Getting people to buy what you’re selling

图片来源:Amazon.com

了解人们的动机很重要——不光是做生意,生活中也是如此。探讨这个主题的书籍有好几千本,但其中大多数都一文不值。出于这个原因,我建议涉及销售问题时只看罗伯特·B·西奥迪尼的《影响力》。

实际上,在1984年以后写就的所有说服术和人类行为著述中,西奥迪尼的书至少都被引用了一次。《影响力》是一本经典著作,它探讨了让人们说“是”的因素并帮助读者应用这些知识。这本书用一半内容谈战术,一半内容谈策略,这让它既实用又通俗易懂。

《影响力》的写作基础是西奥迪尼在电话推销公司、汽车经销商以及融资机构为期三年的“卧底”研究。美国差不多所有商学院都把它作为一门课程并非巧合。

要把窘迫这个“恶棍”碾压在脚下。——罗伯特·B·西奥迪尼,《影响力》

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《致伯克希尔·哈撒韦股东的信》

怎样把话说好

Understanding what motivates people is important — not just in business, but in life. There are thousands of books on this topic but most of them are garbage. That’s why I suggest reading only read Influence by Robert B. Cialdini when it comes to sales.

Practically every book written after 1984 on persuasion or human behavior cites Cialdini’s book at least once. Influence is the classic on the psychology of what makes people say “yes” and helps them apply these learnings. The text is half tactics, half strategy, making it practical and easy to understand.

Influence is based off three years of undercover research Cialdini did at telemarketing firms, car dealerships, and fund-raising organizations. There’s a reason Influence is on nearly every business school curriculum in America.

Embarrassment is a villain to be crushed.—Robert B. Cialdini, "Influence"

Letters to Berkshire Hathaway Shareholders by Warren Buffett: How to talk well

图片来源:Amazon.com

出色的沟通技巧,特别是用书面语言进行沟通可谓领导者要掌握的最重要技能。想想看。短信、Facebook、电子邮件、博客,我们的整个职业生涯都会在键盘上度过。

表面上看,推荐这本书似乎很奇怪。但问题在于,沃伦·巴菲特是我读到过的最顶尖的沟通者。顶尖沟通人士的特征是他们能把复杂概念解释的让人兴奋而且易于理解。巴菲特在这两方面都做得很漂亮。

从1977年开始,巴菲特每年都给伯克希尔·哈撒韦的股东写信。用外行的话来说,他在这些信中介绍了伯克希尔的表现,并且说明这种表现对股东意味着什么以及今后应该有什么样的预期。巴菲特用比喻、幽默以及口头和专业语言的完美结合来探讨那些枯燥的话题,比如价格上涨、保险浮存金以及GAAP会计方法。

每封信都可以在伯克希尔·哈撒韦的网站上免费看到,但我建议花几美元来购买纸质版本。

现在我要告诉大家,为了迎接21世纪的到来,我们进入了制砖、地毯、绝缘和涂料等尖端行业。请控制住自己,不要激动。——巴菲特2001年致股东信的第一句话

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《一个广告人的自白》

怎样让事物变得性感

Strong communication skills, specifically through the written word, is arguably the most important skill a leader can have. Think about it. Texting, Facebook, email, blogging. We spend our entire professional lives at the keyboard.

On the surface this book seems like a strange recommendation. But here’s the thing—Warren Buffett is one of the greatest communicators I’ve ever read. The mark of a great communicator is their ability to explain complicated concepts in an engaging and simple way. Buffett does both beautifully.

Every year since 1977 Buffett has written a letter to his Berkshire Hathaway shareholders. In these letters he explains, in layman’s terms, Berkshire’s performance, what it means to shareholders, and what they should expect in the future. Buffett uses metaphors, humor, and a perfect combination of conversational and professional language to explain boring topics like price appreciation, insurance floats, and GAAP accounting.

Every letter is available online for free on Berkshire Hathaway’s site but I recommend paying a few bucks and getting a hard copy of the letters.

I will tell you now that we have embraced the 21st century by entering such cutting-edge industries as brick, carpet, insulation and paint. Try to control your excitement.—Opening line in Buffett's 2001 shareholder letter

Confessions of an Advertising Man by David Ogilvy: How to make things look sexy

图片来源:Amazon.com

说到广告,那就得请教Ogilvy and Mather(全球最大广告公司之一)创始人大卫·奥格威。虽然与此有关的优秀著作有几十本,但在我看来,其中最出色的就是《一个广告人的自白》。

奥格威的另一本书《奥格威谈广告》(Ogilvy on Advertising)更出名,但《一个广告人的自白》囊括了前者提到的大多数内容,还附加了细节内容,比如客户和广告公司的关系以及怎样发展一家公司。

“今天大家在电视里看到的很多乱七八糟的广告都是委员会的作品。委员会可以批评广告,但绝不应该允许他们拍广告。”——大卫·奥格威

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《林肯与劲敌幕僚》

向美国最伟大的总统学习

David Ogilvy, founder of Ogilvy and Mather (one of the biggest ad agencies in the world), is the person to learn from when it comes to advertising. While there are dozens of great books on the subject, Confessions of an Advertising Man is, in my opinion, the best of the bunch.

Ogilvy’s other book, Ogilvy on Advertising, is better known, but Confessions of an Ad Man covers most of the stuff mentioned there, plus additional details such as client/agency relationships and how to grow a business.

“Much of the messy advertising you see on television today is the product of committees. Committees can criticize advertisements, but they should never be allowed to create them.”—David Ogilvy

Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin: Learn from America’s greatest president

图片来源:Amazon.com

亚伯拉罕·林肯是个管理学天才。在1860年的总统大选中,林肯所属的共和党混乱不堪。没有明确的领导人,人们无法达成协议,整个国家也摇摇欲坠。为了重整共和党乃至美国,林肯说服竞选对手和他共同组阁。其结果是出现了一支“杂牌军”,其中的成员曾经相互憎恨,但他们最终携手让美国顺利度过了那段最艰难的时期。

这本书的最主要结论是怎样应对不同类型的人。几乎没有人花时间来学习这项技能。林肯有神奇的人员组织能力,《林肯与劲敌幕僚》则出色地阐述了怎样复制他的技能。

在这方面排名第二的著作是《给经理人的第一课》(High Output Management,这是布莱恩·切斯基最喜欢的书),其技术性明显强于《林肯与劲敌幕僚》,但相当枯燥。

这是关于林肯政治天赋的故事,它揭示了林肯非凡的个人品质。正是这些品质让林肯得以和此前反对自己的人建立友谊;它们让林肯得以修补受伤的情感,假如弃之不顾,这些情感就可能演变成永久的敌意;它们让林肯能为下属的失败承担责任;让他能轻松地与人分享荣誉;还让他从错误中汲取教训。——多丽丝·基恩斯·古德温,《林肯与劲敌幕僚》

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《聪明的投资者》

沃伦·巴菲特的投资指南

Abe Lincoln was a management genius. In the 1860 presidential election the Republican party (Lincoln’s party) was a mess. There was no clear leader, people couldn’t agree on the issues, and the country was a wreck. To bring the party and country together, Lincoln convinced the candidates running against him to join together to form his cabinet. The result was a ragtag group of men — who previously hated each other — working together to successfully navigate the country through its toughest period.

The biggest takeaway from this book is how to handle different types of people — a skill few people take the time to master. Lincoln had a magic ability to organize people, and Team of Rivals does an amazing job explaining how to replicate his skills.

A runner-up for this category was High Output Management, (Brian Chesky’s favorite book). It is far more technical, but it’s quite dull.

This, then, is a story of Lincoln’s political genius revealed through his extraordinary array of personal qualities that enabled him to form friendships with men who had previously opposed him; to repair injured feelings that, left untended, might have escalated into permanent hostility; to assume responsibility for the failures of subordinates; to share credit with ease; and to learn from mistakes.—Doris Kearns Goodwin, "Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln"

The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham: Written by Warren Buffett’s mentor

图片来源:Amazon.com

当被问到对投资感兴趣的人应该读哪本书时,沃伦·巴菲特说:“60多年来,[《聪明的投资者》的]第8章和第20章一直是我投资活动的基石。我建议所有投资者都读一读这两章,并在市场特别强劲或低迷时再读一读它们。”

我不是巴菲特,我的建议则是通读这本书。《聪明的投资者》囊括了针对任何投资者的策略,还谈到了控制个人情绪的重要性——可以说这是跟市场角力时最关键的技能。

较新的版本还包括了现代投资技巧和实践。

聪明的投资者是现实主义者,他在乐观者面前卖,在悲观者面前买。——本杰明·格拉汉姆

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《国富论》

经济无趣,但我们需要它

When asked which book people interested in investing should read, Warren Buffett said, “Chapters 8 and 20 [of The Intelligent Investor] have been the bedrock of my investing activities for more than 60 years. I suggest that all investors read those chapters and reread them every time the market has been especially strong or weak.”

I’m no Buffett, but I’d suggest reading the entire book. The Intelligent Investor covers strategies for any investor, plus the importance of controlling one’s emotions…arguably the most crucial skill needed when playing with the market.

The newer editions have been updated to include modern investment techniques and practices.

The intelligent investor is a realist who sells to optimists and buys from pessimists.—Ben Graham

The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith: Economics are dull but necessary

图片来源:Amazon.com

我不喜欢看经济类书籍。我觉得它们枯燥无味。但它们很重要。要了解经济,《国富论》应该是大家的首选资源。

虽然这本书主要集中在经典经济学上,但它定义了所有生意人都应该读一读的经济理论。不然的话,就会成为不知道《出埃及记》的圣经学者。

个人为改善自身境况而自发付出的努力是如此强大,以至于其本身在没有任何协助的情况下就不仅能让社会走向富裕和繁荣,还能克服一百个本不该出现的障碍,而愚蠢的人类法则往往用这样的障碍来阻挠个人努力发挥作用。——亚当·斯密

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《文案训练手册》

撰写文案是评价最低的商业技能

I’m not a fan of books on economics. I find them dull. But they are important. The Wealth of Nations should be your first source when it comes to understanding economics.

While it’s mostly focused on classic economics, it’s a defining book on economic theory that every business person should read. Not reading this text would be like a Bible scholar not knowing about The Exodus.

The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition is so powerful, that it is alone, and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting a hundred impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations.—Adam Smith

The Adweek Copywriting Handbook by Joseph Sugarman: Copywriting is the most underrated skill in business

图片来源:Amazon.com

撰写文案是商界人士可以掌握的最有价值的技能。我知道这样说很大胆,但这是事实。现在,听到撰写文案大家很有可能想到创作出性感的广告。但这并非我所指。

撰写文案是一种能力,它把你对一件产品、一项服务或一个创意的理解铺陈在一张纸上,目的是把它卖出去。这个过程的一部分是了解你的听众有何需求,想要什么,有怎样的动机以及哪些东西能触动他们的情感。

说到撰写文案,《文案训练手册》就是最高标准,作者约瑟夫·舒格曼则是著名的直邮广告营销大师。互联网出现之前,直邮广告营销人员会给潜在用户写信。他们必须在只用一张纸的情况下说服陌生人为以前从未见过的产品掏腰包。舒格曼先生是这个行业中的佼佼者。

虽然《文案训练手册》有技术性,但它非常浅显和有趣,其中传授的策略是为了让人们去读你写的任何东西。

你的读者应该是如此渴望读到你的东西,以至于他们在通读之前根本停不下来,就像从光滑的斜坡上一路溜下来那样。——约瑟夫·舒格曼,《文案训练手册》

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《人性的弱点》

史上最畅销图书之一

Copywriting is the single most valuable technical skill a business person can have. I know that’s a bold claim, but it’s true. Now, when you hear copywriting you’re mostly likely thinking about creating sexy advertisements. But that’s not what I’m referring to.

Copywriting is your ability to transfer your knowledge of a product, service, or idea onto a sheet of paper for the purpose of selling. Part of the process involves understanding what your audience needs, what they want, what motivates them, and what stirs their emotions.

When it comes to copywriting, The Adweek Copywriting Handbook is the gold standard. The author, Joseph Sugarman, is a famous direct mail marketer. Before the internet was around, direct mail marketers wrote letters to potential customers. Using only a sheet of paper, these marketers had to convince strangers to send a check for a product they had never seen before. And Mr. Sugarman was the best in the business.

While The Adweek Copywriting Handbook can get technical, it’s a very easy and fun read and teaches strategies to get people to read whatever you write.

Your readers should be so compelled to read your copy that they cannot stop reading until they read all of it as if sliding down a slippery slope.—Joseph Sugarman, "The Adweek Copywriting Handbook"

How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie: One of the best-selling books of all time

图片来源:Amazon.com

想拿MBA学位的一个正当理由是大家要建立一个网络。但大多数人在这方面都表现糟糕。他们不知道怎么把天聊下去,怎么表示对别人感兴趣,或者怎么变得可爱。这正是《人性的弱点》成为必读书籍的原因。

如果你以前从未听说过这本书,我会感到震惊。卡耐基的这本经典著作于1936年出版,随后一直是历史上最畅销的非小说类作品之一。实际上,每一位顶尖的企业领导者都能引述其中的一些句子。大多数高校都用这本书开课,否则就会失去认证资格。

各位的父母都读过这本书。他们的祖父母也是如此。现在轮到各位了。

变得对别人感兴趣后,你在两个月里交的朋友会比你设法吸引别人的注意力时花两年时间交到的朋友还多。——戴尔·卡耐基,《人性的弱点》

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《大师》

自我发展经常遭到忽视,但它最为重要

A legitimate reason for wanting an MBA is because of the network you’ll build. However, most people are awful networkers. They don’t know how to hold a conversation, show interest in others, or be likable. That’s why How to Win Friends and Influence People is a must read.

I’d be shocked if you’ve never heard of this book before. Carnegie published this classic in 1936. It has since become one of the best-selling nonfiction books of all time. Practically every great business leader can quote a few sentences from How to Win Friends and Influence People. Most universities have this book in the curriculum. And if they don’t then they should lose their accreditation.

Your parents read this book. Their grandparents did too. Now it’s your turn.

You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you.—Dale Carnegie, "How to Win Friends and Influence People"

Mastery by Robert Greene: Self-development is often ignored but most important

图片来源:Amazon.com

没有方向的生活毫无意义。追逐金钱同样没有一点儿用处,除非知道自己为什么要这样做。可惜,大多数人,特别是渴望赚钱的A型人格商务人士从未问过自己他们为什么想赚钱,或者为什么想经营一家公司。《大师》会帮你找到答案。

我专门在这份书单里选了两本罗伯特·格林的书。格林的作品是我读过的研究做的最好,最有深度的著述。每个句子都包含实实在在的信息。我觉得格林更多的是个历史学家,而不是作家。

在这本书中,格林探讨了莫扎特、爱因斯坦和达尔文等前辈大师的成功路径,进而说明如何成为领导者。他还解释了人们怎样发现自己真正想要的东西。

未来属于那些学会更多技能并用创造性方式将其组合起来的人。——罗伯特·格林,《大师》

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结论

如果读了并掌握了这些书籍,我相信大家学到的东西会超过99%的MBA毕业生。同时,按一个月一本书的进度计算,你只需要花200美元和11个月就能学到别人投入数万美元和两年多时间才能学到的东西。

或者,就像威尔·亨廷那段精彩的话:

“瞧,你这种人的可悲之处在于,50年后你将会开始反省一些问题,然后你就会发现,生活中有两点确凿无疑:一是不要那样做,二是你为这门该死的课花了15万美元,学到的却是在公共图书馆交1.5美元滞纳金就能掌握的东西!”

现在继续……读书吧!(财富中文网)

译者:Charlie

审稿:夏林

Without direction life is meaningless. Chasing money is utterly useless unless you know why you’re doing it. And unfortunately, most people, especially money hungry type A business folk, never ask themselves why they want to make money or why they want to run a business. Mastery helps you find that answer.

I put two Robert Greene books on this list on purpose. Greene’s books are the most well researched and in depth books I’ve ever read. Every sentence is packed with practical information. I think of Greene as more of a historian than a writer.

In Mastery, Greene explains how to become a leader by examining the pathways to success taken by historical masters such as Mozart, Einstein, and Darwin. He explains how people found their calling.

The future belongs to those who learn more skills and combine them in creative ways.—Robert Greene, "Mastery"

The takeaway

If you read and master these books, I believe that you’ll know more than 99% of MBA graduates. And, at a book a month, you’ll only spend $200 and 11 months to learn what others pay hundreds of thousands for, over two years.

Or, as Will Hunting beautifully put it:

“See, the sad thing about a guy like you is, in 50 years you’re gonna start doin’ some thinkin’ on your own and you’re going to come up with the fact that there are two certainties in life: one, don’t do that, and two, you dropped 150 grand on a fuckin’ education you could have got for a dollar fifty in late charges at the public library!”

Now go on… read!

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