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这五位名人影响了美国人的健康认知

Ellen McGirt 2017年09月27日

长期以来,名人一直在影响消费者就自身健康做出决定的过程,而且经常很巧妙地利用自己的名气来鼓励人们采取行动。

深夜脱口秀节目主持人吉米坎摩尔出人意料地参与了医疗保健论战——去年5月他声泪俱下地讲述了自己刚刚出生的儿子患罕见疾病的详细情况,他呼吁就医疗保健政策展开更有爱的对话,特别是和先天疾病有关的政策。

路易斯安那州共和党参议员比尔卡西迪觉得这个片段表演成分居多,以至于他公开戏称,共和党发起的所有旨在推翻奥巴马医改的提案都应通过针对美国先天性疾病患者的“吉米坎摩尔测试”。在卡西迪参与起草的新《格拉汉姆-卡西迪法案》对这些保护措施提出了质疑后,坎摩尔则“化身”为一名医疗保健专家,愤怒地再次投入论战之中。

昨天,坎摩尔发布了针对此项法案的七分钟阐述,称“它绝对不会通过[吉米坎摩尔]测试”。最后,坎摩尔直截了当地呼吁人们采取行动:“给你们的参议员打电话,告诉他们别破坏美国医疗保健制度,这比以往任何时候都要重要。”此言博得众人喝彩。

虽然坎摩尔或许不太可能是政策专家,但长期以来名人一直在影响消费者就自身健康做出决定的过程,而且经常很巧妙地利用自己的名气来鼓励人们采取行动。

以下五位名人都曾影响过公众对于健康问题的探讨,有时会产生有利影响,有时么……嗯,还是请大家自己看吧。

查理辛宣布自己感染艾滋病毒

这位备受争议的演员2015年宣布自己感染艾滋病毒后,争相进行艾滋病毒测试的人数创下了历史记录。《Prevention Science》杂志刊登的研究报告对“查理辛效应”进行了验证。报告联名作者约翰艾尔斯说,辛公布的消息产生了不可否认的影响。艾尔斯对CNN表示:“我们的新研究表明,辛披露的这件事不光促使人们去搜寻艾滋预防信息,与此同时,艾滋病毒家庭自助快速检测试剂的销量也达到了创纪录的水平。”

安吉丽娜朱莉披露自己有可能患乳腺癌和卵巢癌

朱莉携带有乳腺癌1号基因,这让她患上乳腺癌和卵巢癌的几率分别为87%和50%。在一系列专栏文章中,朱莉坦言得知此事为自己的健康选择提供了重要信息。。当医生告诉她有理由相信她处于癌症早期阶段时,朱莉在2015年选择进行了乳腺、卵巢和输卵管切除术。她透露的这些情况引发了针对癌症筛查和预防性乳腺切除术的重要讨论。研究发现,朱莉公布自己的决定以来,高风险人士进行基因变异筛查的数量出现了急剧增长。

哈利王子袒露心理健康问题

虽然猜测英国王室单身族哈利王子的感情生活挺有意思,但哈利本人在今年早些时候引发了一场截然不同的探讨——他开诚布公地透露了母亲戴安娜王妃去世后自己出现精神问题的经历。哈利王子说,寻求职业发展的决定救了他。他对《电讯报》表示:“很多次我都几乎要彻底崩溃了。”作为全国性精神健康对话活动的一部分,哈利王子将这些事公诸于众后,寻求精神健康评估和服务的人数创下了历史记录。哈利王子坦诚了自己的情况后,英国主要心理健康组织Mind在一周内接到的电话增加了38%。

詹妮麦卡锡的“反疫苗”态度惹麻烦

截至2015年1月底,美国的年度麻疹发病率超过了正常水平。这下麻烦大了,因为美国已经在2000年宣布根除了这种疾病。大部分患病者的感染源都可追踪至迪士尼乐园发现的一起病例;研究者后来发现,出现这种情况的主要原因是“拒绝接种疫苗”。大多数人都把女演员詹妮麦卡锡视为反疫苗运动的代表人物,这一运动源于一项不那么可信的研究,该研究认为接种麻疹/腮腺炎/风疹疫苗会让人患上孤独症。让我们明确一点,那就是研究者已经证实,二者并不存在这样的关联,但这并没能阻止反疫苗活动者在逾10年时间里吓唬人父人母。

格温妮斯帕特洛的养生大师地位并不明确

获得奥斯卡金像奖的女演员格温妮斯帕特洛凭借自己的名气创立了Goop——一个以提供现代健康生活方式内容和建议为主的时尚生活品牌。但最近,Goop的养生建议遭到了批评。今年8月,消费者保护组织Truth in Advertising指出,它发现“Goop明确或隐晦地表示自己的产品(或其推广的产品)可治疗、治愈、防止或减轻多种疾病症状,或者降低多种疾病风险的情况出现过50次”。这些问题产品中包括人们在Goop订购的营养品和据说可以缓解焦虑健身贴纸,。早在争议发生前,Goop就在兜售可疑的养生建议。比如,该公司曾推荐过清洁子宫的蒸汽疗法。Goop网站还销售过昂贵的玉蛋,称将其放进阴道内可“提高阴道肌肉弹性、改善体内激素平衡并增强女性能量”。《华盛顿邮报》报道,这款66美元的产品销售一空,但旧金山凯撒医疗集团妇产科医生珍冈特博士对该报表示,这整件事完全是“一堆垃圾”。 (财富中文网)

译者:Charlie

审稿: 夏林

Late night talk show host Jimmy Kimmel has become the surprising face of the health care debate after he tearfully shared the details of his newborn son's rare health condition last May, calling for a more humane conversation around health care policy, specifically as it relates to pre-existing conditions.

Sen. Bill Cassidy (R-LA) found the segment so moving, he publicly stated that any Republican-sponsored Obamacare repeal bill should pass the "Jimmy Kimmel test" for Americans with pre-existing medical conditions. After the new "Graham-Cassidy" bill, co-sponsored by Cassidy, called those protections into question, Kimmel angrily jumped back into the fray, turning himself into a health care expert in the process.

Yesterday, he published a seven-minute explainer on the legislation, declaring that the “bill most definitely does not pass [the Jimmy Kimmel] test.” He ended with a literal call to action. “It’s more important than ever to call your senators and tell them not to gut American health care,” he said to wide applause.

While Kimmel may be an unlikely policy expert, celebrities have long influenced how consumers make decisions regarding their health, often expertly leveraging their fame to encourage people to take action.

Below, five recent celebrities who have shaped the public conversation around health issues, sometimes for the better and sometimes...well, you'll see.

Charlie Sheen announces he is HIV positive

After the controversial actor announced he was HIV-positive in 2015, a record number of people scrambled to get tested and learn their status. The “Charlie Sheen Effect” was verified by a study published in the journal Prevention Science. John Ayers, who co-authored the study, said Sheen's disclosure had an undeniable impact. “Our new study shows not only did Sheen's disclosure lead people to seek information about HIV prevention, it also corresponded with record levels of at-home rapid HIV testing sales," he told CNN.

Angelina Jolie reveals her risk for breast and ovarian cancer

In a frank series of op-eds, Jolie opened up how learning she carried the BRCA1 mutation, which she said gave her an 87% risk of developing breast cancer and a 50% risk of developing ovarian cancer, informed her health choices. After her doctors told her there was reason to believe she had an early form of the disease, Jolie opted for surgery in 2015 to remove her breasts, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Her disclosure opened up an important debate about screening and prophylactic mastectomy. Since Jolie went public with her decision, studies have found a dramatic uptick in high-risk patient screenings for the genetic mutation.

Prince Harry opens up about his mental health

While it's fun to speculate on the love life of the bachelor royal, Prince Harry inspired a different conversation earlier this year when he spoke candidly about his struggles with mental health following the death of his mother, Princess Diana. His decision to seek professional, he says, helped saved him. “I was very close to a complete breakdown on numerous occasions,” he told The Telegraph. Following Harry's disclosure, which was part of a “national conversation about mental health,” a record number of people reached out for mental health evaluations and services. Mind, Britain’s leading mental health organization had a 38% increase in calls the first week after Harry’s candid revelation.

Jenny McCarthy’s “anti-vaccine” stance becomes part of a troubling trend

By the end January of 2015, the U.S. had logged more measles cases than the country typically sees in a year. This was particularly troubling, as the disease had been declared eradicated in 2000. The bulk of the infections could be traced back to an outbreak in Disneyland; Researchers later determined that “vaccine refusal” was primarily to blame. Actress Jenny McCarthy is largely viewed as the celebrity face of the anti-vaccine movement, which spawned from a now discredited study that linked the MMR (measles/mumps/rubella) vaccine to autism. Let's be clear: researchers have confirmed that such a connection does not exist, but that hasn't stopped anti-vaccine activists from frightening parents for more than a decade.

Gwyneth Paltrow's status as a wellness guru is unclear

The Academy-award winning actress has used her fame to launch Goop, a lifestyle brand that offers New Age-y, mostly benign content and advice. Recently, however, Goop's wellness claims have come under fire. This August, Truth in Advertising (TINA) announced that it found "50 instances in which the company claims, either expressly or implicitly, that its products (or those it promotes) can treat, cure, prevent, alleviate the symptoms of, or reduce the risk of developing a number of ailments.” Subscription-based supplements and stickers that claim to reduce anxiety were among the problematic products. Long before the controversy hit, Goop was peddling questionable health advice. For example, the company recommended a procedure known as “vaginal steaming" that promised to “cleanse your uterus.” The site also sells expensive jade eggs that, when inserted into your vagina, are supposed to “increase vaginal muscle tone, hormonal balance, and feminine energy in general.” The $66 item sold out, according to The Washington Post, though Dr. Jen Gunter, an OB/GYN for Kaiser Permanente in San Francisco, told the Post the whole thing was “the biggest load of garbage.”

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